Aggregation. The state in which the moving sperms clump to each other or to other parts of the ejaculate, thereby reducing their mobility significantly. Agglutination is most likely to indicate the presence of the anti-sperm antibodies.

A formation covering the front two thirds of the sperm head that contains the enzymes involved in the fertilization process.

Acrosome response
The process running prior to ovum fertilization that leads to gradual breakdown of the acrosome and enzyme release.

Skipping the menstruation. The cause may be physiological (pregnancy, breastfeeding, postmenopausal period), hormonal imbalance, rapid weight change or stress.

Branch of medicine dealing with diseases and disorders of male genital organs and male fertility.

Male and female organisms sometimes produce antibodies against sperm or embryo. These prevent fertilization, pregnancy or development of the embryo and thus cause the so-called immunological infertility.

Anti-spermatozoid antibodies
These may be present in the serum, uterine cervix mucosa or in the seminal plasma. They reduce mobility and disrupt the normal function of the sperm, causing the so-called immunological infertility. They may also hamper the passage of the sperms through the uterine cervix or prevent conception.

Lack of ovulation. The anovulatory cycle is a menstrual cycle without the release of the ovum from the follicle and the formation of the yellow body.

Artificial insemination
Introducing the sperms into the genital tract of a woman in a manner other than sexual intercourse. The sperms can be inserted into the vagina, the uterine cervix, or the uterus.

Assisted reproduction
A set of techniques that allow fertilization and pregnancy in cases where natural fertility or pregnancy is reduced.

Assisted hatching
A micromanipulation technique in which the embryo shell (zona pellucida) is disrupted shortly before its transfer to the uterus, which facilitates the contact of the embryo with the uterine mucosa and consequently its hatching in the uterine mucosa.

Complete lack of ejaculation in orgasm. It is very rare.

Insufficient sperm motility.

Absence of the sperms in the ejaculate. It may be caused by a sperm production disorder in the testicles – secretory or obstruction-free azoospermia, or seminal vesicle closure – obstructive azoospermia. It occurs in about 2% of men from the entire population.


Biochemical pregnancy
Very early pregnancy detected by rising the serum cholesterol gonadotrophin (HCG) hormone levels. In the ultrasound examination, the presence of the embryo in the uterus is not yet detectable.

One of the stages of embryonic development. Upon prolonged culturing, the embryo is transferred into the uterus at this stage.

A single cell of the dividing embryo.


Cervix (uterine cervix)
The part of the uterus that results in the vagina through which the menstrual blood passes and which the sperms pass through the vagina into the cervix and further into the ovaries. Its glands produce the so-called cervical mucus that regulates the sperms entry depending on the ovarian cycle.

Corpus luteum
The yellow body. It originates in the ovary after ovulation. It produces the hormone progesterone, which is essential for maintaining pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, it disappears toward the end of the cycle.

The procedure in which excessive embryos are frozen in a special apparatus at -196° C. Transfer of the thawed embryos increases the chances of becoming pregnant without the need for hormonal stimulation. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos is somewhat lower than that of the “fresh” ones, as freezing and thawing poses some stress to the embryos.

Cryotransfer of the embryo
Transferring the thawed embryos to the previously hormone-prepared uterus.

A condition where there is no sperm in the normal ejaculate, but after centrifugation there are several sperms that can be used on the ICSI.

Culture medium
The solution in which the in vitro embryos develop.

Cam, a cavity with different, most often liquid content.


Donation of the sperms
The procedure by which the sperms are obtained from the donor and stored frozen in the sperm bank. They are used when the partner does not produce his own sperms, if the quality of his sperms is very low, or if he is a carrier of a genetic disease.

Donation of the ovum
The procedure by which another woman gives her ova to a patient. It is performed in women who either do not have their ovaries developed, have their ovarian activity decreased, or are carriers of a genetic disease.


Semen; fluid secreted from the penis at orgasm that contains seminal plasma and sperms.

A fertilized ovum is called an embryo and as of a certain stage in the development it is called a foetus.

The IVF procedure, when a single or several embryos are inserted into the uterus by using a special catheter.

The mucosal lining of the uterine cavity, the thickness of which depends on the stage of the menstrual cycle. If the embryo is not implanted in it, it breaks off and leaves the body during menstruation. During pregnancy, a placenta arises out of it that nourishes the foetus.

Epididymis; A part of the male genital organs adjacent to the testicle in which the sperms from the testicle grow and are stored.

Erectile dysfunction
Inability to achieve or maintain erection sufficient enough to culminate the sexual intercourse.

The main female sex hormone produced mainly by follicular cells during its growth. Its secretion rises in the first, pre-ovulation phase of the cycle from the 5th to the 14th day (the so-called proliferation phase). It controls the ovum maturation and preparation of the uterine mucosa for implantation.

Extra uterine gravidity
Extra uterine pregnancy.

Extra uterine pregnancy
Extra uterine gravidity. Occasionally embryos are hatched outside the uterus – into the ovary, ovarian duct or abdominal cavity. An embryo can develop normally for a certain period of time, but it usually dies over within the first three months. Typical difficulties include unilateral sore throat and vaginal bleeding. The suspicion is confirmed by a positive pregnancy test and ultrasound examination. The treatment consists of the surgical removal of the embryonic germ.


Fallopian duct
A part of the female’s sexual tract that connects the ovary and the uterus. It captures the ovum released during ovulation and fertilization takes place there. The fertilized ovum is divided several times in the ovary and travels to the uterus where it is implanted.


Fertilization. The process by which the sperm penetrates the ovum. The fertilized ovum is called zygote.

A ball-shaped ovarian unit that contains an ovum. At the beginning of each cycle, several follicles begin to mature, of which only one completely matures (the dominant or Graaf’s follicle) and ovulates in the cycle.

Follicular phase
The phase of the ovarian cycle from the first day of menstruation, during which the dominant follicle develops to the stage of pre-ovulation Graaf’s follicle. It takes about 14 days and ends with ovulation. At this stage, the cervix mucus is permeable for the sperm and the probability of pregnancy is the highest.

Monitoring the growth of the follicle by ultrasound by measuring its size and prognosis or evidence of ovulation. Hormonal stimulation is repeated several days later.

Follicle-stimulating hormone. It’s the so-called gonadotropic hormone produced by the pituitary gland (hypophysis). It stimulates follicular growth and estrogen production.


Male and female sex cells, i. e. sperms and ova.

Hormone regulating the production and release of gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LH) in the hypophysis. It is produced by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.

Sex hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) produced in the hypophysis and chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) produced by the placenta. They stimulate the growth and maturation of follicles and the production of steroid hormones (estradiol and progesterone).



The human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone that is only present in pregnancy. Its determination in serum or urine is the basis of pregnancy tests. For hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, it is administered 36 hours prior to the collection of the ova to ensure the final maturation of the ova.

The presence of blood in the ejaculate. The cause may be inflammatory disease of the genital organs.

A detailed survey of the necessary data on the health condition, the course of previous diseases and current difficulties, etc.

Hormonal profile
Blood test to determine sex hormone levels. It is usually done three times in one cycle (at the beginning of ovulation, during ovulation, and at its end) to assess the entire course of the cycle and the presence of ovulation.

Hypoosmotic test
The test enabling one to distinguish the immobile dead sperms from the immobile live sperms.


Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into the oocyte. A special technique of assisted reproduction, which consists of introducing a single sperm into the ovum cytoplasm (ooplasm) using a micro needle under a microscope using a micromanipulator. It is used primarily for the treatment of graver forms of male infertility, as well as in the failure of the classical IVF or a higher female patient age.

The process in which the embryo in the blastocyst stages immerses into the uterine mucosa. This means the beginning of gravidity.

Immunological infertility
Fertility disorders caused by antibodies against sperms or the embryo. Assisted reproductive techniques are often effective in addressing immunological infertility.

Infertility is defined as the inability of the couple to achieve conception or pregnancy after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse. For women over the age of 35, this period is six months.

In vitro
The term, which is used in the sense of: outside the body, extra-corporeal.

Intrauterine insemination. An assisted reproduction technique, in which the modified fraction of the moving sperms is applied directly to the cervical cavity. It is performed especially in cases of inexplicable infertility and mild forms of endometriosis.

In vitro fertilization. It literally means fertilization in the “tube”. It is a technique of assisted reproduction that involves fertilization outside the body. It is used to treat infertility caused by damaged or missing ovarian ducts, inexplicable infertility, infertility caused by endometriosis, and male infertility. In a nut shell, it is the mixing of the collected ova with the separated fraction of the moving sperms.


The presence of large numbers of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the ejaculate indicates the most common inflammatory disease of the genitals.

Luteinizing hormone. It’s the so-called gonadotropic hormone produced by the pituitary gland (hypophysis). In women, it calls for the final maturing of the ova and ovulation. In men, it stimulates the production of male sex hormones.

Luteal phase
The phase of the ovarian cycle from ovulation until the next menstruation. During this phase, progesterone produced in the corpus luteum causes the preparation of the uterine mucosa necessary for the embryo hatching. It usually takes 14 days. During the luteal phase, the cervical mucus is dense and does not allow the transfer of the sperms into the uterus.


Separation of the uterine mucosa at the end of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle if pregnancy is not present.

Menstrual cycle (also ovarian cycle)
Menstrual cycle (also ovarian cycle)

(Microsurgical Epididymis Sperm Aspiration) A microsurgical extraction of the sperms from a male who has no sperms in the ejaculate to fertilize the ovum using the ICSI method.


The presence of only immature semen in the ejaculate, which may not be dead. Living immobile sperms may be distinguished from the dead ones by special tests.


Ova collection (PICK UP)
Oocytes that have matured in follicles after hormonal stimulation are sucked off through the vagina wall from the ovaries. The procedure is painless; it is performed in short general anaesthesia (10-15 minutes). Complications during the collection of ova are very rare, usually only a slight bleeding occurs.

Low sperm count in the ejaculate.

A combined, mostly graver sperm failure, when there is decreased concentration, mobility, and the number of normal forms of sperms in the ejaculate.

Female sex cell; ovum. It is formed and matures in the ovary, in a body called the follicle. After the oocyte is fertilized by the sperm, an embryo is formed.

Ovary. It contains follicles that gradually mature and when ovulating, they release mature oocytes and also produce sex hormones (estradiol and progesterone).

Ovarian stimulation
Hormonal action on the ovaries for the growth of multiple follicles. In the natural cycle, usually just one oocyte matures and ovulates. For assisted reproduction techniques, it is desirable to promote the growth of multiple follicles with drugs to increase the chances of becoming pregnant. There are several ways of ovarian stimulation, while the planned IUI is a mild stimulation, while the IVF is aimed at maturing of as many mature ova as possible.

Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS)
Rarely occurring complication resulting from excessive ovarian response to stimulation.

Ovarian cycle
Menstrual cycle.

The process of breaking the dominant Graaf’s follicle and releasing the mature ovum, which is then captured by the ovarian duct in which fertilization occurs.


Prolonged culturing
Development of embryos in vitro on the fourth or fifth day after fertilization. In selected cases, this Assisted Reproduction method increases the chances of becoming pregnant.

Female sex hormone, which is formed in the yellow body of the ovary in the luteal phase of the cycle. Its effect lies in the reconstruction of the uterine mucosa, which is prepared for the embryo and in the case of pregnancy it protects the embryo.

Hormone produced in the Hypophysis. It calls for and maintains the production of breast milk. Certain levels of prolactin are essential for hormone production in the ovaries, but its elevated level suppresses its production and can cause cycles without ovulation and sometimes even irregular menstruation. The level of prolactin is adjusted by drugs, unless another cause of infertility is detected.


Retrograde ejaculation
Backflow of the ejaculate into the urinary bladder instead of out of the penis causing the failure of the external sphincter of the bladder to close. It has several causes.


Seminal plasma
The liquid part of the ejaculate. It is produced by the so-called additional gonads and acts as a transport solution for the sperm.

Male sex cell. It is formed in the testicles.

Sperm bank
A device in which frozen sperm are stored in liquid nitrogen.

Description of the microscopic examination of the male ejaculate. Based on this, fertility of the male is considered.


A large group of hormones produced in various endocrine-secreting glands. Sex steroids are androgens (testosterone) produced by testes, oestrogens (estradiol), and progesterone produced in the ovaries. Steroid formation and secretion is controlled by hormones from the hypophysis.


(Testicular Sperm Extraction) A microsurgical sperm collection from the male testicle who has no sperms in the ejaculate to fertilize the ova in the IVF.

The presence of large amounts of sperm with abnormal shape.

Testicle, the male sex organ. In the testicle, sperms and sex hormones (testosterone) are formed.

It is the main male sex hormone, which is produced mainly in the testicles, in women it is formed in the ovaries and adrenals in smaller amounts. Testosterone is responsible for the development and function of the male genital organs and for the sperm formation.




Yellow body
Corpus Luteum.


Zona pellucida
Protective ovum envelope and after fertilization even the early stages of embryonic development. In implantation, this envelope leaves the embryo.

A fertilized egg; a single-cell embryo. It is the first stage of the embryo development, from fertilization until the first division to a two-cell embryo. The zygote involves mixing the sperm and the ovum genetic material.