The ultrasound examination of the internal genitalia has an irreplaceable place in the diagnostics of the causes of infertility and belongs among the basic examinations in the diagnostic algorithm. It is minimally invasive and readily reproducible, it provides information on most of the congenital and acquired morphological abnormalities. The uterus and ovaries are well-displayable organs, so they can be examined not only by the vaginal, but also by the abdominal probe with the full urinary bladder. By the USG examination we focus on congenital malformations of the uterus, myomas (size, localization, growth dynamics), morphological changes on the endometrium (mucosa height, polyp), and ovarian abnormalities (cysts, endometriosis, ovarian reserve).
In the assisted reproduction, we use the ultrasound to monitor the conditions for ovarian stimulation, the course of the ovarian stimulation (folliculometry), ovulation timing, and the quality of the uterine mucosa (endometrium). Under the ultrasound control, ova collection, embryo transfer, and early pregnancy diagnostics are performed.