In vitro fertilization (IVF)
In vitro fertilization (IVF) requires the acquisition of the sperms and the female ovum – oocyte.
The female ova/oocytes are collected from the ovaries in the total anesthesia under the control of transvaginal ultrasound. The intervention is performed by a special puncture needle, which passes through the vaginal wall to the ovary, from which the ova are sucked-off. The patient leaves for home after about three hours.
The ejaculate sample is obtained from the partner on the day of the oocytes puncture in a special collection room designed for these purposes. Sexual abstinence is recommended for 2 to 7 days before collecting the ejaculate. After processing the ejaculate, the ova/oocytes are fertilized with the partner’s sperms in a specialized fertilizer medium in a culture vessel. The cumulus-oocyte complexes are inseminated by the sperms at a concentration of about 25,000 motile sperms/oocytes. Fertilization occurs spontaneously, the principle being similar to that in natural conception.
After 16 – 20 hours, the embryologist will assess the fertilization success.
If a man has doubts whether he will be able to pass the ejaculate on the day of his partner’s ova collection, he has the opportunity to have his sperms frozen (cryopreserved) in advance, but the use of the fresh ejaculate is preferred.